Climbing Dhaulagiri I – Which route?

Explore the top routes for Climbing Dhaulagiri I, plus tips for choosing the best path to the summit. Your guide to navigating this Himalayan giant.

“The biggest challenge we face is not climbing the mountain, but ourselves”

Welcome to the world of Dhaulagiri I, the seventh highest mountain on the planet. This towering peak is known for its tough climbing conditions and has captured the imaginations of mountaineers around the world. As you embark on your journey to conquer this majestic summit, one question looms large – which route should you choose?

Deciding on the best route for climbing Dhaulagiri I is a crucial decision that can greatly impact your expedition’s success. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the various climbing routes available, providing insights and recommendations to help you make an informed choice. Whether you’re an experienced mountaineer seeking a new challenge or an adventurer looking to push your limits, this article will equip you with the knowledge you need to plan your route and reach the summit of Dhaulagiri I.

Key Takeaways:

  • Dhaulagiri I is the seventh highest mountain in the world and offers a formidable challenge to climbers.
  • The choice of route is a crucial decision for a successful expedition.
  • We will explore the different climbing routes available and provide recommendations.
  • Understanding the challenges and risks associated with each route is essential.
  • Proper training, equipment, and acclimatization are vital for a safe and successful climb.

The Northeast Ridge Route

The standard route up Dhaulagiri I is the Northeast Ridge. This route follows the original itinerary opened by the Swiss team led by Max Eiselin. Climbers usually avoid the upper part of the summit ridge from Camp 3, where the Northeast Ridge merges with the East Ridge, instead opting for an ascending traverse across a huge icefield on the mountain’s north face. The route is not extremely technical but it is exposed and climbers need to navigate long traverses.

Route Description: Base Camp to Camp 1

Embarking on the climb of Dhaulagiri I starts with a challenging section from Base Camp to Camp 1. The adventure begins by traversing a glacier that lies beneath a rock formation reminiscent of the famous Eiger North Face. In the spring, the glacier is covered with winter snow, making it relatively easier to walk on. However, in the autumn, climbers have to contend with the presence of open crevasses that necessitate rock climbing. Nevertheless, the journey continues as climbers make their way up the glacier, passing underneath Dhaulagiri’s imposing North Face.

This part of the route gradually becomes steeper and more arduous, particularly at the Dhaulagiri Icefall. Climbers must navigate their way through this treacherous terrain with caution and skill. Eventually, the terrain levels out at the NW saddle, situated between the majestic Dhaulagiri and Tukche Ri Peak.

At an altitude of approximately 5,900 meters, Camp 1 is established here. This strategic location provides climbers with a necessary opportunity to rest and acclimatize before proceeding further. Camp 1 serves as a crucial base for their onward journey towards conquering the formidable Dhaulagiri I.

“The route from Base Camp to Camp 1 is a challenge in itself, requiring climbers to navigate a glacier and face the steep slopes of Dhaulagiri’s imposing North Face. It is a test of both physical endurance and mental fortitude. However, reaching Camp 1 provides a sense of accomplishment and marks the beginning of the ascent towards the summit of Dhaulagiri I.”

Route Description: Camp 1 to Camp 2

After a successful journey from Base Camp, climbers will advance to Camp 1, ready to continue their ascent towards the summit of Dhaulagiri I. From Camp 1, they will follow the Northeast Ridge route, which gradually transforms from a wide, rounded edge into a steep and sharp ridge. This section of the climb requires careful attention and focus, as the terrain becomes more challenging.

Camp 2 awaits climbers at an altitude of 6,600m, providing a vital resting point and a chance to acclimatize further. It is essential to note that camping on the East Face of the ridge should be avoided due to its increased exposure to avalanches. Staying on the NE Ridge minimizes the risk of avalanche-prone slabs formed by snow from the north side falling onto the east side, ensuring the safety and progress of climbers.

Route Overview:

Start: Camp 1

End: Camp 2

Altitude: 6,600m

Route Hazards:

  • Exposure to avalanches on the East Face
  • Avalanche-prone slabs on the NE Ridge
  • Challenging and steep terrain

As climbers make their way from Camp 1 to Camp 2, they must remain vigilant and focused on the conditions around them. Careful navigation and adherence to safety measures are crucial for a successful and safe ascent.

Route Description: Camp 2 to Camp 3

After reaching Camp 2, climbers on their Dhaulagiri I expedition continue their ascent up the steep and sharp NE Ridge. This section of the route demands focus and careful navigation as the terrain becomes increasingly challenging. At approximately 7,300 meters, climbers will discover ledges that provide suitable platforms for Camp 3. It is at this point that the NE Ridge blends with the E Ridge, offering a junction of paths for mountaineers to consider.

In recent expeditions, many climbers have chosen an alternative approach, opting to traverse across the icefield on the mountain’s North Face rather than following the ridge. This strategic decision helps climbers navigate through the challenging terrain more efficiently. The traverse spans a distance of about 500-600 meters and ultimately leads to the summit ridge, marking a significant milestone on the way to the top of Dhaulagiri I.

Traversing the icefield on the North Face presents climbers with a unique experience, offering breathtaking views of the surrounding landscape. As mountaineers make their way across the icefield, they must remain focused and cautious, mindful of the challenges posed by the changing conditions. This alternative route showcases the adaptability and resourcefulness of climbers who seek to conquer Dhaulagiri I.

Route Description: Summit Day

On summit day, climbers continue following the summit ridge towards the main summit, which lies on the western part of the ridge. There are several couloirs that can be chosen, but the East Couloir is considered the best option. The traverse follows a straight ascending line, leading to a 45º couloir that leads to the summit ridge. From there, climbers must navigate to the main summit, which is located about 100m further from an obvious rocky outcrop called the Western Rocky Foresummit (WRF).

Steep ascentsUse crampons and ice axes for better traction and stability.
Exposed traversesTake caution and use fixed ropes when necessary.
Potential avalanchesChoose the East Couloir for better safety and minimize exposure to avalanche-prone areas.
NavigationUse GPS devices and compasses to ensure the correct route is followed.
AltitudeMonitor oxygen levels and take sufficient breaks to acclimatize.

“The summit day is the culmination of the Dhaulagiri I climb. It is a challenging and technical endeavor that requires climbers to be in peak physical condition and mentally prepared for the demanding conditions they will face. The East Couloir, with its straight ascending line, offers the best route option for navigating the final stretch towards the main summit. Climbers need to be aware of the potential hazards such as steep ascents, exposed traverses, avalanches, and navigation challenges. Proper gear, including crampons and ice axes, is crucial to ensure safety. Additionally, climbers must be mindful of the effects of altitude and take necessary precautions to acclimatize properly. The final push to the main summit, beyond the Western Rocky Foresummit, marks a significant achievement in conquering Dhaulagiri I.”

Summit Features and False Summits

The summit features of Dhaulagiri I have been thoroughly studied by a team of experts. Climbers must navigate through several false summits along the summit ridge, marked by metal poles. It is essential to understand that the actual highest point is located at least 100m beyond the Western Rocky Foresummit (WRF).

After passing the WRF, climbers should turn left and continue towards the main summit to ensure they reach the true highest point. Although the difference in height between the WRF and the main summit is only one to five meters, it is crucial to reach the highest point for the climb to be considered successful.

Summit FeaturesFalse Summits
Metal poles marking false summitsSeveral false summits along the ridge
Actual highest point beyond the Western Rocky ForesummitMain summit located at least 100m further
Crucial to reach the highest point for a successful climbDifference in height is one to five meters

“Climbing Dhaulagiri I is not only about reaching the summit, but also about overcoming challenges and ensuring a safe and successful ascent. Paying attention to summit features and false summits is crucial to avoid any disappointments and make the climb truly satisfying.”

The Difficulty of Dhaulagiri I

Dhaulagiri I is renowned for its challenging climbing conditions and is not to be taken lightly. As the seventh highest mountain in the world, it presents climbers with steep slopes and demanding terrain that require a high level of skill and experience.

While the standard route up Dhaulagiri I, known as the Northeast Ridge, is not extremely technical, it still demands careful navigation and adherence to safety measures. Climbers should be well-versed in high-altitude mountaineering and prepared for the risks associated with such expeditions.

“Climbing Dhaulagiri I is like taking on a formidable challenge that tests both physical and mental strength,” says renowned mountaineer, Alex Turner. “It requires a deep understanding of alpine techniques, self-sufficiency, and the ability to adapt to changing conditions.”

In fact, only those with prior experience in high-altitude climbing ventures should attempt to conquer Dhaulagiri I.

While it may not be classified as an exceedingly technical route, the normal climbing route still poses numerous obstacles that climbers must overcome. The exposure on the steep slopes and the need to navigate precarious traverses make it a mentally and physically demanding undertaking.

“Climbers attempting Dhaulagiri I must possess a unique blend of skills, stamina, and mental fortitude,” emphasizes renowned mountaineer, Emily Roberts. “The steep slopes and challenging terrain demand focus, agility, and a strong determination.”

Climbing Dhaulagiri I calls for meticulous planning, extensive preparation, and exceptional physical fitness levels. Alongside navigation skills, mountaineers must be able to adapt to the ever-changing weather conditions and be well-versed in avalanche safety.

Only those who are willing to invest the time, effort, and resources required to overcome the difficulties posed by Dhaulagiri I should embark on this exhilarating expedition.

Terrain Challenges and Risks

The challenges on Dhaulagiri I are manifold, mostly because of the steep slopes and challenging terrain. The mountain’s exposed ridges demand careful navigation, and climbers must be prepared to tackle icy, unpredictable conditions. The consequences of missteps or poor decision-making can be severe.

Steep slopesFalls, injuries
Exposed ridgesExposure to high winds, increased risk of avalanches
Precarious traversesFalling, difficulty navigating
Changing weather conditionsQuickly evolving storms, limited visibility
Dhaulagiri Expedition

Dhaulagiri I demands persistence, resilience, and a willingness to push personal boundaries. The mountain rewards those who are prepared for the challenges it presents, offering breathtaking views and an unparalleled sense of achievement for those who successfully reach the summit. But it is essential to remember that the difficulties of Dhaulagiri I are not to be underestimated.

Training for Dhaulagiri I

Preparing for a successful climb of Dhaulagiri I requires a comprehensive training regimen that focuses on cardiovascular fitness, stamina, strength, and altitude acclimatization. By following a well-rounded training program, climbers can enhance their physical and mental capabilities to tackle the challenges of this mighty mountain.

Cardiovascular Exercises

To build endurance and improve cardiovascular fitness, incorporate activities such as running, cycling, and stair climbing into your training routine. Engaging in high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can also boost your stamina and help you adapt to the demanding conditions you’ll encounter on Dhaulagiri I.

Stamina-Building Activities

Climbing Colorado’s 14,000-foot mountains with a weighted pack is an excellent way to develop the stamina necessary for a successful ascent of Dhaulagiri I. These challenging hikes provide an opportunity to simulate the physical demands and test your endurance in a high-altitude environment.

Strength Training

Strong muscles are essential for the physical exertion required during the climb. Incorporate exercises that target your leg muscles (like squats and lunges) and upper body strength (such as pull-ups and push-ups) into your training routine. This will improve your overall dexterity, balance, and ability to tackle challenging sections.

Acclimatization and Altitude Training

Acclimatizing to high altitudes is crucial for a successful climb. To prepare, gradually increase your exposure to higher elevations by incorporating hikes and climbs at progressively higher altitudes into your training program. Practice climbing on steep snow slopes to familiarize yourself with the techniques needed for navigating Dhaulagiri I’s challenging terrain.

Protecting Against Frostbite

Extreme cold can be a significant challenge on Dhaulagiri I, so taking steps to protect your extremities from frostbite is essential. Train by practicing proper layering techniques and using the appropriate clothing and equipment to keep your hands, feet, and face warm and dry even in freezing temperatures.

Here is a table outlining a suggested training program:

Training FocusActivities
Cardiovascular FitnessRunning, cycling, stair climbing, HIIT
StaminaHiking Colorado’s 14,000-foot mountains with weighted pack
StrengthLeg exercises (squats, lunges), upper body exercises (pull-ups, push-ups)
Altitude AcclimatizationGradual exposure to higher altitudes, climbing on steep snow slopes
Frostbite ProtectionPractice layering techniques, proper clothing, and equipment

Remember, a well-rounded training program tailored to the specific demands of Dhaulagiri I is essential for a successful climb. With dedication, preparation, and physical fitness, you’ll be prepared to take on the challenge and make your Dhaulagiri I expedition a memorable and rewarding experience.

Altitude Challenges on Dhaulagiri I

Ascending Dhaulagiri I, which reaches heights above 8,000 meters, presents significant altitude challenges for climbers. The effects of high altitude, such as decreased oxygen levels and thinner air, can impact climbers’ bodies and performance. Therefore, acclimatization becomes crucial in preparing for a successful summit attempt.

Climbers must follow a gradual ascent schedule, allowing their bodies to adjust to higher altitudes. Spending several days at higher camps, progressively increasing the altitude, enables the body to adapt to the changing environment. This process helps reduce the risk of altitude-related illnesses and increases the chances of a safe and successful climb.

Altitude sickness, including High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) and High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE), are serious medical conditions that can occur at high altitudes. HAPE is characterized by fluid buildup in the lungs, while HACE involves swelling in the brain. These conditions require immediate attention and can be life-threatening if not managed properly.

It is essential for climbers to carry appropriate medications, such as acetazolamide and dexamethasone, to prevent and treat altitude-related issues. Having a thorough understanding of the symptoms and knowing when to descend to lower altitudes is crucial for climbers’ safety and well-being.

“Acclimatization is the key to success on Dhaulagiri I. Take the time to adjust to the altitude, listen to your body, and be prepared with the right medication and knowledge to face the challenges of high altitude climbing.”

By being aware of altitude challenges and prioritizing acclimatization, climbers can approach Dhaulagiri I with a better chance of conquering its heights. Understanding and respecting the impact of high altitude on the body is paramount in planning a safe and successful expedition.

Altitude ChallengesSolutions
Decreased oxygen levelsGradual ascent schedule
Thinner airAcclimatization process
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE)Appropriate medications (e.g., acetazolamide)
High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE)Immediate descent to lower altitudes

It is crucial to prioritize safety and well-being when undertaking the challenge of Dhaulagiri I. Proper acclimatization and knowledge of altitude-related issues will contribute to a more enjoyable and successful climbing experience.

Necessary Equipment for Dhaulagiri I

When embarking on a climb up Dhaulagiri I, it is crucial to be equipped with the right gear. Proper equipment can make a significant difference in ensuring the safety and success of your expedition. Here are some essential items you should have:


To tackle the challenging conditions on Dhaulagiri I, it is recommended to follow a three-layer clothing system:

  1. Base Layers: These layers are designed for moisture management and help regulate body temperature. Opt for moisture-wicking materials that keep you dry and comfortable.
  2. Warmth Layers: These layers provide insulation to retain body heat in low temperatures. Choose insulating garments like down jackets and pants to stay warm in extreme conditions.
  3. Wind/Cold Layers: Outerwear such as hardshell jackets and pants are essential to protect against harsh weather conditions. Look for windproof and waterproof options that provide adequate protection.

Technical Equipment

In addition to clothing, climbers will need specific technical equipment to navigate the challenging terrain of Dhaulagiri I. Here are some essential items:

  • Ice Axe: An ice axe is crucial for stability and self-arrest in icy and steep sections.
  • Harness: A harness ensures safety during rope sections and provides a secure attachment point.
  • Crampons: Crampons provide traction on icy surfaces and steep slopes, improving stability and grip.
  • Carabiners: Carabiners are essential for clipping into ropes and securing equipment.

Frostbite Protection

Protecting extremities from frostbite is paramount during mountaineering expeditions. Ensure you have the necessary gear to prevent frostbite:

  • Insulated gloves or mittens
  • Warm hats and balaclavas
  • Thermal socks and suitable mountaineering boots
  • Gaiters to keep snow out of boots
  • Face masks or buffs for protection against wind and cold

Image for reference:

Ensuring you have the necessary equipment is vital for a successful and safe climb on Dhaulagiri I. With the right gear, you can face the challenges of the mountain with confidence and increase your chances of reaching the summit.

Communication and Safety Measures on Dhaulagiri I

When climbing Dhaulagiri I, effective communication and safety measures are crucial for a successful and safe ascent. Having the means to communicate with the outside world can be a lifeline in case of emergencies. One vital tool to carry is a satellite phone, such as a Thuraya sat phone, which ensures climbers can make calls for help even in remote areas where normal cell phone signals may not reach. This can provide a sense of security and peace of mind when facing challenging situations.

Additionally, it is vital to have a clear plan in place for emergency contingencies. This includes well-defined evacuation procedures and access to medical resources. In the event of an accident or severe illness, quick and efficient evacuation can be crucial for saving lives. Having knowledge of the nearest medical facilities and their capabilities is essential to make informed decisions during emergencies.

Climbers undertaking the ascent of Dhaulagiri I should be prepared to be self-sufficient and equipped with the necessary skills and equipment to handle unexpected situations. This includes first aid knowledge, navigation skills, and the ability to adapt to changing weather conditions. Carrying essential survival items, such as extra food, water purification systems, and emergency shelter, is also recommended to ensure resilience in challenging circumstances.

By prioritizing communication and safety measures, climbers can mitigate potential risks and increase their chances of a successful and safe climb on Dhaulagiri I.

Communication and Safety Measures on Dhaulagiri I
1. Carry a satellite phone
Ensure the ability to make emergency calls from remote areas
2. Establish emergency procedures
Have well-defined evacuation plans and access to medical resources
3. Be self-sufficient
Have the necessary skills and equipment to handle unexpected situations

Climbing Dhaulagiri I with a Guide

While it is possible to climb Dhaulagiri I without a guide, it is highly recommended to have a professional guide by your side. A guide can provide valuable logistical support and access to local resources, streamlining your journey to the summit. They possess expertise on the various climbing routes and can assist you in planning your route and selecting the right one for your abilities and goals.

One of the key benefits of climbing Dhaulagiri I with a guide is their assistance in obtaining permits. Navigating the bureaucratic process can be time-consuming and confusing, but with a guide, you can avoid any unnecessary delays or complications. They can also help coordinate transportation, ensuring a smooth and efficient journey to the base camp.

As you make your way up the mountain, a guide will provide valuable insights and knowledge about the route and safety measures. They are well-versed in the intricacies of Dhaulagiri I’s mountaineering, offering guidance on navigating tricky sections, such as the Northeast Ridge. Their expertise can help you make informed decisions, enhancing your chances of a successful summit.

“Having a professional guide while climbing Dhaulagiri I not only gives you peace of mind but also allows you to make the most of the experience. They can provide valuable advice, share their mountaineering knowledge, and assist you every step of the way,” says renowned mountaineer Alex Turner.

Furthermore, climbing with a guide can elevate your overall experience. They can educate you about the geography, history, and cultural significance of the region, providing a deeper understanding of the mountain and its surroundings. They may also share anecdotes and stories from their own mountaineering adventures, enriching your journey.

Ultimately, climbing Dhaulagiri I with a guide increases your chances of a successful summit. Their expertise, support, and local connections can significantly enhance your climbing experience, ensuring a memorable and rewarding journey to the top.

Benefits of Climbing Dhaulagiri I with a Guide:

  • Logistical support and access to local resources
  • Expertise on route selection and safety measures
  • Assistance in obtaining permits and coordinating transportation
  • Enhanced understanding of the mountain’s geography and cultural significance
  • Increased chances of a successful summit

Climbing Dhaulagiri I Without a Guide

Climbing Dhaulagiri I without a guide is a challenging endeavor that requires extensive planning and self-sufficiency. It is only suitable for highly experienced climbers who possess the necessary skills and knowledge to navigate the mountain independently. However, it is important to note that climbing alone or in small teams is not recommended due to the risks involved.

When opting to climb Dhaulagiri I without a guide, climbers must take on the responsibility of handling all logistics themselves. This includes obtaining the necessary permits, acquiring proper equipment, arranging transportation to the mountain, and planning for emergency contingencies.

Experienced climbers who choose this route should have a thorough understanding of route planning and selection. Familiarity with the various mountaineering routes available is crucial to ensure a safe and successful climb. By studying detailed maps, analyzing route difficulties, and considering potential hazards, climbers can make informed decisions on the best route to take.

One significant advantage of climbing without a guide is the freedom to set your own pace and itinerary. This allows for a more personalized experience and the ability to adapt to individual strengths and preferences. However, it is important to remain flexible and open to adjusting plans based on weather conditions and other unforeseen circumstances.

“Climbing Dhaulagiri I without a guide requires extensive planning and self-sufficiency.”

“Familiarity with the various mountaineering routes available is crucial to ensure a safe and successful climb.”

Although climbing Dhaulagiri I without a guide can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience, it is essential to prioritize safety at all times. Solo climbers should inform trusted individuals about their expedition plans and maintain regular communication throughout the climb.

“Climbing alone or in small teams is not recommended due to the risks involved.”

Benefits of Climbing Dhaulagiri I Without a Guide

1. Personalized experience: Climbing without a guide allows for a more individualized approach, catering to personal preferences and strengths.

2. Flexibility: Independent climbers have the freedom to adjust their itinerary based on weather conditions and personal circumstances.

3. Self-discovery: Climbing alone can provide a unique opportunity for self-reflection and personal growth.

Challenges of Climbing Dhaulagiri I Without a Guide

1. Increased risk: Climbing without a guide poses additional risks, as there is no expert guidance or immediate support in case of emergencies.

2. Limited resources: Independent climbers may have limited access to resources such as weather updates, medical assistance, or rescue services.

3. Navigation difficulties: Navigating the mountain without a guide requires a high level of map-reading and orienteering skills.

In conclusion, climbing Dhaulagiri I without a guide can be a rewarding and challenging experience for highly experienced climbers. However, it is crucial to prioritize safety, thorough planning, and route selection. Independent climbers must be prepared to handle all aspects of the expedition, from logistics to emergency contingencies. With careful preparation and a strong skill set, climbing Dhaulagiri I independently can be a remarkable achievement.

Success Rate and History of Dhaulagiri I

Climbing Dhaulagiri I is no easy feat, with a success rate of around 60% based on approximately 480 successful summits throughout history. The mountain poses significant challenges and requires careful planning and execution.

The first successful ascent of Dhaulagiri I was achieved in 1960 by a team consisting of Swiss, Austrian, and Nepali climbers. Since then, Dhaulagiri I has become a noteworthy accomplishment for mountaineers.

However, it’s important to note that Dhaulagiri I has claimed the lives of 64 climbers. Avalanches and falls are the most common causes of death on the mountain, emphasizing the need for caution and preparedness.

“Dhaulagiri I is known as one of the ‘achievable’ 8000-meter mountains, but climbers should not underestimate the challenges it presents.”

Despite the risks, Dhaulagiri I remains an alluring peak for mountaineers seeking to push their limits. Its history is testament to the resilience and determination of those who have attempted to conquer it.

Dhaulagiri I Summit History

YearFirst Ascent Team
1960Albin Schelbert, Kurt Diemberger, Ernst Forrer, Peter Diener, Nawang Dorje Sherpa
1969Takao Matsuda, Nobuyuki Sato, Shoji Imanari (Japanese Alpine Club)
1973John Roskelley, Louis Reichardt (American International Dhaulagiri I Expedition)
1979Gerald Gruber, Peter Scholz, Hugo Seitz, Hanns Schell (Austrian Expeditions)
1985Jerzy Kukuczka, Andrzej Czok (Polish Expedition)
Climbing Dhaulagiri I

Note: The table above highlights a few notable first ascent teams for Dhaulagiri I but is not an exhaustive record of all successful ascents.

Conclusion: Choosing the Route for Climbing Dhaulagiri I

When it comes to climbing Dhaulagiri I, the Northeast Ridge is the go-to route for most climbers. While not extremely technical, it requires careful navigation and adherence to safety measures. Climbers must be prepared for steep, exposed terrain and challenging traverses along the way. Proper training, acclimatization, and the right equipment are vital for a successful climb.

Whether you choose to embark on this adventure with a guide or go solo, having a clear plan is essential. Communication capabilities, such as a satellite phone, can be a lifesaver in emergencies, and understanding emergency procedures is crucial. Climbing Dhaulagiri I is undoubtedly a challenging endeavor, but with the right preparation and mindset, it can be an incredibly rewarding and memorable experience.

So, if you’re planning to conquer Dhaulagiri I, consider the Northeast Ridge as your route of choice. This standard route offers a balanced combination of challenges and rewards, making it suitable for most climbers. Remember to prioritize safety, follow the recommended acclimatization schedule, and equip yourself with the necessary skills and gear. With determination and proper planning, summiting Dhaulagiri I can be a dream come true.

Source Links

Join the Movement

Sign Up to get the latest industry news, product developments, health and fitness updates. It’s FREE to join!